Adaptations of prey
Animals that are prey are far from defenseless. Armed with muscular limbs and stamina, they can often outrun their predators. Having eyes at the sides of their head also gives them a wider field of vision to spot predators more easily.
Prey animals often have appearances that allow them to blend in with their surroundings. This allows them to avoid being detected by predators, increasing their chances of survival.
Protective outer covering
The porcupine has barbed quills that can cause serious pain to predators that try to come close. It also releases a foul smell to warn predators of its sharp quills.
Animals such as some moths, fish and caterpillars sport markings on their bodies that resemble the eyes of a larger animal. This makes them look like a bigger animal such as an owl, or even a snake, when predators first catch a glimpse of it.
Animals such as buffalos and oxen have formidable horns which can cause severe harm to predators trying grab a bite.
Animals that are harmless or taste good to other animals have markings that causes them to resemble more fearsome animals, making them appear less appetising to potential predators.
Some prey animals produce poisons to deter potential predators. To prevent them being eaten, they often have bright colours that warn predators of their poison.
Living close together
Meerkats are highly social animals which live in groups of about 20. They take turns to look out for predators while other members of the mob hunt, warning them of potential predators.
Animals such as the frill-necked lizard and pufferfish have techniques to make themselves appear larger, scaring off potential predators.