Digital Interactive Content


Adaptations for Pollination

Wind-pollinated flowers

Flowers pollinated by wind have reproductive structures such as anthers and stigmas which allow wind to carry pollen grains farther away or to catch pollen grains in the wind easily.

Animal-pollinated flowers

Flowers that rely on animals to transfer their pollen grains from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of another have structures such as brightly-coloured petals, sweet scents and nectar to attract animals.

Adaptations for Seed Dispersal

Wind-dispersed seeds

A large diversity of seeds are dispersed by wind! Some have wing-like structures that resemble gliders or helicopters while others have fine hairs. But they all rely on the same concept of air resistance to help them stay afloat in the air for a longer time.

Animal-dispersed seeds

The sweet, juicy fruits surrounding seeds help to attract animals to feed on them, allowing the seeds to be eaten and eventually passed out, far away from the parent plant, in the animals’ waste. Animals do not only help plants to disperse their seeds by feeding on them! Some seeds have hooks which cling onto the fur of animals, hitching a ride of animal’s body until they are shaken off, away from the parent plant.

Water-dispersed seeds

Fruits such as the sea bean rely on the flow of water to transport their seeds far away from the parent plant. They are usually encased in a waterproof outer covering which protects a fibrous husk.